Why FREEsenSEX Shoots Up Amidst National Calamity? Our Superslave Chettiar gang has enough to cheerup the Week End Break as FREEsenSEX shoots up amidst AFIRE INDIA! The REAL Faces of Indira Assasiantion Are Still HIDDEN! Muslim Hatred Campaign Reminds Me of Those SIKH Genocide Days!Indira led Third world resistance against USA But We Opposed her as She became Part and parcel of Soviet Socilist Imperialism! After Assam, It is Chattishgargh! My Country is Burning! But it is COPULATION and Seasonal Mating Time for the Politicians Playing with democracy and constitution in India!
Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams: Chapter 98
On the Net:
If Sadhvi Pragya Thakur is guilty, punish her, says Advani
Times of India - 3 hours ago
NEW DELHI: Reacting to the alleged involvement of Sadhvi Pragya Thakur in the Malegaon blasts, senior Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader LK Advani said, if the sadhvi is guilty then she should be punished.
SP terms BJP`s defence of Pragya`s links with ABVP baseless Zee News
BJP backtracks on sadhvi row NDTV.com
India Today - Sify - Hindu - Livemint
all 179 news articles »
Win or lose, Palin seen to be a political force
Reuters - 7 hours ago
By Ed Stoddard - Analysis DALLAS (Reuters) - Sarah Palin has emerged as the new darling of social conservatives, and this political capital could make her an influential vice president -- or propel her as a candidate for the prime spot in 2012 -- if ...
Palin says Obama incapable of meeting national security challenges TopNews
Palin not qualified for vice president post: US poll Times of India
Reuters India - The Associated Press - SINDH TODAY - AFP
all 1,690 news articles » ?????? ??? »
US election: Obama extends campaign into Republican heatland
guardian.co.uk - 1 hour ago
Barack Obama's team demonstrated its confidence of victory by today announcing it is to extend its campaign in the final days deep into the Republican heartland, adding to its target list even John McCain's home state Arizona.
'It's gonna get nasty' in final days before election CNN
Obama pushes for McCain territory BBC News
Los Angeles Times - New York Times - The Associated Press - ABC News
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McCain insists he can catch Obama
Los Angeles Times - 27 minutes ago
'We're coming back strong,' McCain tells supporters in Ohio, although an average of polls shows him down by 6 points nationally.
'It's gonna get nasty' in final days before election CNN
Presidential Candidates Enlist Marquee Names New York Times
BBC News - The Associated Press - guardian.co.uk - ABC News
all 479 news articles »
Indo-Pak peace process sould continue: Ban Ki-Moon
Hindustan Times - 52 minutes ago
United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon has expressed concern over the security situation in Pakistan. Ban, who was here on a two-day visit, said, "I am concerned over the deteriorating security situation in Pakistan.
Ban’s Indian connections Hindu
UN Secretary General lauds Indian democracy Sify
NDTV.com - Thaindian.com - Xinhua - Indian Express
all 64 news articles »
'US strike' kills 15 in Pakistan
At least 15 people have been killed in a suspected US missile strike in Pakistan, security officials said.
They said the attack hit a house in the village of Mir Ali, in North Waziristan, bordering Afghanistan.
Reports said the target of the attack was an al-Qaeda operative, but it was unclear if he was among the dead.
The US military has not commented. More details coming.
Cabinet clears bill for free education to kids between 6-14
31 Oct 2008, 1955 hrs IST, PTI
NEW DELHI: In a major boost to education sector, the Union Cabinet has cleared the long-pending Right to Education Bill, which promises free and
compulsory education for children between 6 and 14.
"The Bill has been considered at several levels by the Group of Ministers (GoM). The Cabinet has approved the text of the Bill," Finance Minister P Chidambaram told reporters here today about the decision of the Cabinet which met last night.
Observing that it was an important promise to the children as education would become a fundamental right, he said that it would be legally enforcible duty of the Centre and the states to provide free and compulsory education.
Chidambaram said that the HRD Ministry would release the text of the Bill after consulting the Election Commission in view of the assembly polls in some states.
The GoM, entrusted with the task of scrutinising the Bill, had cleared the draft legislation early this month without diluting the content including some of the contentious provisions like 25 per cent reservation in private schools for disadvantaged children from the neighbourhood at the entry level.
Other key provisions in the Bill are no donation or capitation or interviewing the child or parents as part of a screening procedure.
The Right to Education Bill is the enabling legislation to notify the 86th Constitutional amendment, which gives every child between the age of 6 and 14 years the right to free and compulsory education. It was passed by Parliament in December 2002.
MONEY MACHINE is well FED and it Digests everything determining Life and Livelihood of Indian people! Thus, FREEsenSEX registers Turnaround ! Extending gains for the third day in a row, stock markets staged an impressive come back rally on Friday with the benchmark Sensex closing higher by nearly 750 points on brisk buying by funds.On the other hand, Beaten down and watching their wealth shrink, Americans are cutting back sharply on their spending, trimming it in September by the largest amount in four years! US Economy SHRINKS! The weakness in consumer spending, which accounts for two-thirds of total US economic activity, dragged the overall economy down in the third quarter. The gross domestic product, the broadest measure of economic health, also fell by 0.3 per cent in the third quarter, the strongest signal yet that the country has fallen into a recession.
When the US government announced an emergency plan to buy bad loans and other troubled assets from banks and financial institutions, it was
hailed as the best solution to tackle paralyzed credit markets.
Nearly a month later, the plan remains under wraps and money managers say it could have a fundamental flaw – only a handful of the biggest investors are qualified to run the program.
When the plan won congressional approval on October 3, days after it was initially rejected, the Treasury Department said the program could be up and running within a few weeks.
It was designed as the core part of a $700 billion rescue package as it would root out toxic assets from the system, eliminating a key area of uncertainty for investors about when US and global credit markets would be cleaned out and resume normal functioning.
But so far, no asset managers have been announced, suggesting that the government is running into difficulty in finding the most appropriate money managers for the job.
In order to compete for the contracts to buy and sell mortgage-backed securities (MBS) under the plan, companies must oversee at least $100 billion in US dollar-denominated, fixed-income assets for clients.
Citing turbulence in the country's economy, British trade union GMB has opposed world's leading French fries supplier McCain Foods' proposal to outsource finance and administration-related jobs to India.
GMB, reportedly having about six lakh people as members, said in a statement on Thursday said it would ask McCain not to proceed with the proposal to offshore employments which would see "32 backroom jobs in five locations in England being outsourced to India".
Canada-headquartered McCain Foods is planning to export backroom jobs to India from five locations spread across England.
According to GMB, the company had informed that it is looking at a proposal to outsource jobs of finance and administration workers to India "to take advantage of much cheaper wage rates there".
The government's decision to table a bill in Parliament to hike FDI cap in private insurance firms was today hailed by industry chambers and insurers as a move to bring in much needed capital in the sector.
"The insurance sector being a capital intensive sector requires huge investments over a prolonged period of time, and therefore, there is constant need for capital infusion.
"A hike in the sectoral FDI cap to 49 per cent would further grow the insurance sector and bring in much needed FDI to the country," MetLife India Insurance's Managing Director Rajesh Relan said in a statement.
Confederation of Indian Industries, termed the bill as a much-awaited one, and said, that this bill "would further help in development of the insurance sector".
The industry body, which had played an active role in preparing the draft bill, hoped that it would find a quick and easy passage in Parliament.
MetLife's Relan said allowing more FDI would help achieve "increased coverage to the rural and social sectors, thereby providing protection and peace of mind to the people... also increase employment, develop tertiary sectors such as IT/ITeS and provide long-term investments for developing infrastructure..."
Ficci said, "We now hope that the bill would be cleared in Parliament and thereby provide an impetus for further growth of the insurance sector in the country."
The Union Cabinet, at a meeting yesterday, approved to table a comprehensive insurance bill, which among others, proposes to increase FDI cap in the sector to 49 per cent from 26 per cent now.
Forex kitty shrinks by USD 15-billion!
Forex reserves fell by a whopping USD 15.4-billion for the week ended October 24 to USD 258.415 billion as compared to USD 273.886 billion in
the previous week, the biggest fall in over eight years.
The reserves had fallen by USD 118-million for the week ended October 17 and by USD 9.937-billion in the preceedings week.
The fall in reserves comprised a USD 15.467 billion decline in the foreign currency assets (FCA)during the period, which fell to USD 249.394-billion from USD 264.861 billion in the previous week, Reserve Bank said in its weekly report on Friday.
FCAs expressed in US dollar terms include the effect of appreciation or depreciation of non-US currencies such as the Euro, Sterling and Yen held in reserves.
During the week, the gold reserves stood unchanged at USD 8.565-billion while country's special drawing rights climbed USD 5 million to USD 9-million, the RBI data said.
India's reserve position in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) further fell by USD 9-million during the week to to USD 447-million from USD 456 million in the previous week, the RBI said.
The risk of international conflict will increase in the next two decades as China, India and Russia become major powers and competition for resources grows, the top US intelligence official said on Thursday.
The next 20 years of transition to a new international system will be fraught with risks and challenges with the rise of emerging powers and a historic transfer of wealth and economic power from West to East, US Director of National Intelligence Mike McConnell told an intelligence conference in Nashville, Tennessee.
"Strategic rivalries are most likely to revolve around trade, demographics, access to natural resources, investments and technological innovation," McConnell said in a transcript of a speech provided by his office.
If current trends persist, by 2025, China will be en route to becoming the world's largest economy, a major military power and likely the world's largest importer of natural resources, McConnell said.
India and Russia would be close behind with more wealth and power, he said.
Economic and population growth will put increasing pressure on a number of strategic resources, such as energy, food and water.
"Just think about it: 1.4 billion people without these basic necessities will create significant tensions on the globe, tensions that world bodies and larger states will have to contend (with)," McConnell said.
Save the nation and adrees the long pending Issue of nationalities crushed hitherto with Military arms of the barahminical hegemony!
Security has been beefed up in the northern districts of West Bengal as the police apprehend a serious terrorist threat in the region after serials bombings rocked neighbouring Assam, officials said Friday.
“We’re apprehending a serious threat in the northern West Bengal districts - especially in Siliguri as it’s the biggest business centre in the region after Guwahati. We’ve implemented three-level security checking in our district to prevent any kind of subversive activity,” Darjeeling District Superintendent of Police Rahul Srivastava told IANS by phone.
He said Siliguri - a bustling town about 600 km from Kolkata - is also under serious security scanner in view of the Chhath puja, a major north Indian festival, which will be celebrated Nov 4.
“Since the men behind these subversive acts always try to strike at crowded places during religious occasions, we’ve sounded a high alert in Siliguri,” said Srivastava, adding that a huge religious conglomeration takes place in Siliguri during Chhath every year.
According to state intelligence sources, Siliguri has for long been a favourite haven for militants like the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA).
Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar are the two districts in West Bengal that share a border with Assam.
Actor-turned-politician Chiranjeevi has announced that his Praja Rajyam Party will support the formation of a separate Telangana state if the Centre came with such a proposal.
"It is for the Central government to take a decision on creation of Telangana state. If it comes up with such a proposal, our party will not be an obstacle at any cost," he told a gathering in this Telangana town during his road show.
Meanwhile,A group of non-resident Indians (NRIs) has asked the US to put Raj Thackeray-led Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) on the "list of terrorist
organisations which are out to hurt the humanity".
"We requested the US department of state to put Raj Thackeray and his group Maharashtra Navnirman Sena on the list of terrorist organisations which are out to hurt the humanity," said a letter to US secretary of state Condoleezza Rice by the US-based NRI group called Humane Mumbai.
NRI Ravi Verma, who hails from Katihar in Bihar, formed the group Humane Mumbai.
"There are several Indians of Marathi origin who were among the first to join the group Humane Mumbai," Verma said over phone from California.
After the hue and cry in India in the wake of the attacks on non-Maharashtrians, the Indian diaspora is also not taking this lightly, he said.
"The Indian diaspora prays that there is never an insane (person) like Raj Thackeray in the US or UK who starts a US or UK Navnirman Sena and instigates attacks on the Indians living there," Verma said.
Verma said Humane Mumbai initiated the process of putting Raj Thackeray and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena on the infamous terror watchlist on Thursday.
Once Raj Thackeray is on the terror watchlist, they will be under surveillance by the US for their activities, he said.
Verma, CEO of Telecommand Software and Services in the Silicon Valley, said there was widespread dismay among Indians throughout the world over the persecution of people of north Indian origin living in or visiting Maharashtra.
Indians of Marathi origin are particularly embarrassed at the events back home, he said.
But the Colonial Super slave Rulers of this US Perpheri are least concerned! They do everything Antipeople to save the Corporates and the Capitalists! Genocide continues! My Country has become an Infinite KILLING FIELD!
The global slowdown will have an indirect effect on the Indian economy, finance minister Palaniappan Chidambaram told reporters on Friday. He said however this would not result in massive job losses.
The government on Friday approved the much-awaited comprehensive insurance bill, which seeks to raise foreign direct investment cap in private sector to 49% from 26%, and said it would be tabled in the Parliament in December.
"The union cabinet gave its approval for introduction of the Insurance (Amendment) Bill, 2008 for amendment to Insurance Act 1938, General Insurance Business Act, 1972, and Insurance Regulatory and Development Act, 1999, in the Rajya Sabha on the basis of recommendations made by GoM," finance minister P Chidambaram told reporters here in the morning.
However, the Bill is unlikely to be passed in this Parliament mainly due to lack of time, Chidambaram said while briefing on decision taken in the Cabinet on Thursday night.
The amendments, he said, will remove archaic and redundant provisions in the legislations and would incorporate certain provisions to provide IRDA with flexibility to discharge its functions effectively and efficiently.
The Cabinet also decided to introduce the Life Insurance Corporation (Amendment) Bill, 2008 in the Lok Sabha, he said.
After Assam, it Is Chhattisgargh! My Country is burning! But it is COPULATION and Seasonal Mating Time for the Politicians Playing with democracy and constitution in India!
At least 17 policemen sustained minor injuries on Friday when Maoist guerrillas detonated a powerful land mine in front of their vehicle in Chhattisgarh's southern Bastar region.
The incident took place on a state highway in Narayanpur district, some 250 km south of capital Raipur.
"It was a huge blast but fortunately it missed the target. The mine exploded 10 metres in front of the mini bus with 25 policemen on board," Inspector General of Police AN Upadhyay said.
"The blast created a huge crater on the road, and flying stones smashed window panes of the vehicle, injuring the policemen," the officer said.
The injured men were rushed to a hospital in Narayanpur town, 18 km from the attack site.
On the other hand, Investigating agencies on Friday questioned over 20 persons as they probed a possible HuJI-ULFA link behind the deadly serial blasts in Assam which claimed 77 lives, while curfew was clamped in worst-hit Ganeshguri here after protesters went on a rampage.
The scale and planning behind the blasts have led the police to suspect local militants joining hands with terrorist outfits to carry out the coordinated strikes.
One person has been arrested in connection with the Assam serial blasts. Zulfikar Ali from the Nagaon district, whose vehicle was used on the blast, has been held!
The ULFA cadres are being trained by the jehadi militants and there is definitely a link between the two which is being investigated, he said.
While suspecting the hand of the Bangladesh-based Harkat-ul Jehad-e-Islami (HuJI) outfit, police claimed to have got clues that the blasts were carried out by people having local links. Thus the ULFA angle has come in, the official said.
Schools and educational institutions remained closed in Guwahati while a total shut-down was observed in Kokrajhar following a bandh call by VHP and BJP.
A team of NSG experts from New Delhi visited the blast sites at Ganeshguri, the deputy commissioner's office and Fancy Bazaar here to make an on-the-spot assessment of yesterday's terror strikes that left over 450 wounded.
"We are not taking seriously the denial by the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA-of being responsible for the blasts) because on earlier occasions also they have done so", a top Assam police official said.
Nation pays homage to Indira Gandhi! Indira Gandhi who had to face Nationwide Protest for his ways of Dictatorship! Yes, we also Opposed Indira Gandhi!But we were neither the socialist Oxides nor the Gandhian carbides. We were not the part of Pro US Movement led jointly by JP, RSS and the Left! Nevertheless, Indira remains the only leader who voiced Third World Resistance against US Imperialism. We oppoesed her because he became a part and parcel of Soviet Socila Imperialism!
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was the Prime Minister of the Republic of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. She was India’s first and to date only female Prime Minister. Indira Gandhi was one of the most charismatic leaders of modern India whose ideas and activities touched different spheres of India’s public life and politics and left an imprint on world affairs, especially, the Non-alignment Movement. She was the Prime Minister for over fifteen-and-half years. She was born born on 19 November 1917 in the politically influential Nehru dynasty, she grew up in an intensely political atmosphere. Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. Returning to India from Oxford in 1941, she became involved in the Indian Independence movement.
In the 1950s, she served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as India’s first Prime Minister. After her father’s death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha by the President of India and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri’s cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.
It happens every Year when rest of the Country flooded, FREEsenSEX gets Meat.Despite Free Fall continuing in Newyork Wall Street and US Economy Shrink, Our Superslave Chettiar gang has enough to cheerup the Week End Break as FREEsenSEX shoots up amidst AFIRE INDIA! The REAL Faces of Indira Assasiantion Are Still HIDDEN! Muslim Hatred Campaign Reminds Me of Those SIKH Genocide Days!
Why the FREEsenSEX shoots up amidst national Disaster?
The question remains yet to be answered.
No Relief to the Common Man despite sliding OIL Prices but the MONEY Machine is well FED!
For the third time in as many months, state-run oil companies on Friday slashed jet fuel prices by over Rs 9,400 per kilo litre, or 16.8
per cent, a move that would ease the pressure on cash-strapped airlines.
The ATF prices have been slashed by about Rs 24,000 per kilo litre since September in tune with falling global oil prices. However according to available information, private airlines wanted to assess the total benefits before they think of passing on the same to air travellers.
Indian Oil, Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan Petroleum cut jet fuel or aviation turbine fuel (ATF) price in Delhi by Rs 9,429.87 per kl to Rs 47,017.93 per kl, industry officials said.
The cut, which follows similar reductions on September 1 and October 1, would be effective from midnight tonight.
High prices of ATF had put airlines in a tight spot with leading private carriers, including Jet Airways and Kingfisher Airline, which had defaulted on payment to oil companies, demanding a bailout package from the government earlier this month.
During a recent meeting with civil aviation minister Praful Patel, along with airline executives, petroleum minister Murli Deora had come down heavily on private carriers for non-payment of astronomical arrears but agreed for a deferred repayment in monthly installments.
When contacted spokespersons of Jet Airways and Kingfisher said they are evaluating the situation before a decision is taken on passing the benefits of reduced ATF prices to air travelers.
In Mumbai, the home to India's busiest airport, ATF prices were cut by 16.8 per cent to Rs 48,656.59 per kilo litre from Rs 58,479.37 per kilo litre.
The third cut in a row has brought down jet fuel prices from Rs 71,028.26 per kl (ex-Delhi). They were first cut to Rs 59,650.17 per kl effective September 1 and then to Rs 56,447.80 per kl from October 1.
"We follow a very transparent system of fixing prices," IOC Chairman Sarthak Behuria said when suggested by some reporters that the company should have not cut ATF prices and use the excess money to make up for losses on sale of diesel, domestic LPG and kerosene.
"How can we do that? Whenever price move down we have to cut (ATF prices) and when they move up, we have increased them," he said.
Till now, the three companies fixed jet fuel prices once every month but from November they will fix them every fortnight - once on first and on 16th of every month.
Possible Huji-ULFA link behind the Assam killings is the appropriate COCKTAIL for One Eyed Doe Indian policy making quite detached with Nationality question!
Govt slams Assocham for job loss forecast which happens the ULTIMATE Truth for the DEVASTED Indian Economy!
Taking strong exception to industry chamber Assocham's forecast that a quarter of people in certain key sectors will lose jobs in the
next ten days, government on Friday said the economy is poised for the other way.
"The deputy chairman of the planning commission and my colleague Jairam Ramesh (minister of state for commerce) have taken serious exceptions to an Assocham report... The pace of job creation may slow down but that doesn't mean that jobs are being destroyed," finance minister P Chidambaram told reporters here.
The minister further said another industry chamber FICCI too had contradicted the Assocham study, which had said that in the next ten days or so about 25% to 30% employees are likely to lose jobs in seven sectors including aviation, information technology, steel, financial services, real estate, cement and construction.
Chidambaram further said that 7% growth rate, the lowest projection made by experts, would "create more job than was done in entire NDA regime, when the growth was only 5.8%. Why this question was not raised when the economy was growing at 5.3%?"
Replying to questions on the recent report on slowing of the US economy, the minister said, "when the world output slows down, the growth in developed countries slows down... it will have an indirect impact on India."
The ruling Hegemony launched an All Out hatred campaign against the Muslims linking the International terror chain and justifying Aggressive US Corporate Imperialsim! Why ULFA has a deep sypathy base amongst the Ahmia people, Universities and Intelligentsia, it does not bother the Demography Politicians of India. Why ULFA chooses Huji as its ally despite its demand to deport illegal migrants, GOI never considers. In fact, recent strategical change in ULFA stance exposed the vulnerability of the NON Assamese Indian citizens including resettled partition victim refugees in Assam. The faces of recent victims say so many things, but political players of mainstream India is not concerned a little bit.ULFA is marginalised. Anti Muslim HATRED targeted to OBAMANIA is the gist of this episode of National Calamity and the HATRED Festival is well reflected in FREEsenSEX mods! It is Pre Election Seasonal Mating Time amongst different organs of the Hindu brahaminical Ruliong Hegemony and Vote Bank Equations happen to be the Top Most Priority!
It is reminiscent of SIKH HATRED ignited by Indira`s Killings on this Day incidentally twenty four years ago! The REAL faces of Indira Assasiantion are still HIDDEN!
Muslim hatred campaign reminds me those days of SIKH Genocide Hollocaust nationwied. Mind you, at that time also, Fascism and Imperialism killed the SIKH Nationality. Once again it is out and out a Nationality Question, a question of AHAMIA Identity and Existence which have been subverted into intense Muslim hatred and linked with ZIONIST WHITE HINDU post modern Manusmriti Apartheid agenda!
I have written about my childhood days while I witnessed how two Brahmins of Kumaoon KC Pant and ND Tiwari encashed the plight of Black Untouchable partition victim bengali refugees. They were deprived of Reservation to maintain caste Hindu demography intact so Nainital remains a general Loksabha seat. Tiwari became UP chief minister three times and Uttarakhand CM once, he did nothing to ensure the constitutional rights of our people. meanwhile, thanks to Adwani and Brahmins of West Bengal, Pranab, Somnath and Buddhadeb, our citizenship is also endangered. Because we have a part of Kumauni Nationality and enjoy the support of local population and alaso, empowered ourselves to launch ressistance at any given moment, we never face an ASSAM like situation in Uttarakhand or UP!My father stood with his people in Riot Torn Assam in 1960 just after he led dhimri Block Peasants` Uprising in Nainital and Communist party led by GS PC joshi evicted him out of the party. Since then, my people befriended with Tiwari and Pant. We remained a Vote Bank intact for the duo which played miracle with the political career of the two. My father late Pulin Babu was the undisputed leader of his people who could put anything on stake for his people`s sake. I inherit the legacy of that struggle.
On October, 31st, Pulin Babu was a guest in the house of ND Tiwari, a cabinet minister at 3 Krishna Menon marg in New Delhi.
approving an insurance bill that seeks to raise foreign direct investment cap in the sector to 49% from 26% now.
Mkts see strong pullback; Metal, Oil, Bank indices up 7-10%
It was a spectacular session for the markets. Benchmark indices shot up quite sharply on the back of short covering on the first day of November series. This was the second consecutive day that markets have been jumped higher led by metal and oil stocks. Huge buying was also seen in banking, telecom, IT, auto and capital goods stocks.
Brokers said besides a fall in inflation to below 11 per cent, anticipation of rate cut by the central bank revived invesotrs's interest in buying as they feel that both lower lending and inflation rates bode well economic growth.
Meanwhile, Little-known Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM) claimed responsibility for the serial blasts that killed 77 people in Assam and warned of more such attacks.In an SMS message sent to local 'News Live' television channel, the ISF-IM claimed responsibility for Thursday’s blasts and threatened to carry out more bomb explosions in several parts of the country.
Extending gains for the third day in a row, stock markets staged an impressive come back rally with the benchmark Sensex closing the day higher by nearly 750 points on brisk buying by funds. Marketmen said slew of favourable factors boosted investor sentiment which was at its lowest ebb after sustained heavy selling in bourses across the world for about a month.
"We are not taking seriously the denial by ULFA (of being responsible for the blasts) because on earlier occasions also they have done so", a top Assam police official said.
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and the UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi also paid floral tributes at Shakti Sthal.
Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards at her residence on October 31, 1984.
Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 to 1984.
She was elected to Parliament for the first time in 1964 and also served as the country’’s Minister of Information and Broadcasting in the government of Lal Bahadur Shastri.
She is noted for declaring a state of emergency after a court struck down her election in 1975, and also for her handling of the ”Operation Blue Star” against Sikh militants.
Indira Gandhi was born in Allahabad in 1917 and was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’’s first Prime Minister and Kamala Nehru.
She was the recipient of India’’s highest civil award, Bharat Ratna.
The Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh attended the Indira Gandhi National Integration Award function in New Delhi today. Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust has been conferred the 23rd Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. Following is the text of the Prime Minister’s speech on the occasion:
not be fully accounted for.
Russia for economic ties with China, India!
India and China as priority partners, with most of the top western nations headed for recession.
Raj softens stand on 'Chhat' puja
"I have never opposed Chhat Puja but only spoke against political 'tamasha' (stunt) associated with it....People from Bihar who live here can perform the religious rituals according to the customs. My party has never opposed it," he told reporters in Mumbai.
hackeray also asked his supporters to exercise restraint and accused the media of distorting his views and spreading falsehood.
“We can go to any extent to ensure safety of people from North India,” SP General Secretary Amar Singh told reporters in New Delhi.
Huge Indian Ocean tsunamis occur every 600 years
Arch rivals AIADMK and DMK traded charges over the attack on former chief Jayalalithaa's motorcade in Ramanathapuram district with both parties accusing each other of "stage managing" the incident.
Jayalalithaa accused DMK patriarch M Karunanidhi's Madurai-based son M K Azhagiri of being behind the stone pelting yesterday "under directions from his father", while DMK alleged that the AIADMK leader was rattled by the growing popularity of their leader and was therefore making such accusations.
Five cops suspended in Orissa nun rape case
"Five policemen have been placed under suspension for misconduct and negligence of duty in connection with the nun episode," Home Secretary T K Mishra told reporters.
From animated Romeos to graphical Ram
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Posted: Oct 29, 2008 at 1537 hrs IST
Says Mahesh Manjrekar, who has done his first voiceover for Elecom Fiesta Entertainment's ‘Cheenti Cheenti Bang Bang’ budgeted at Rs 4 crore, "Money did not play a role in my decision in being a voiceover for the character of an evil ant. Animation is an altogether different experience that is to lend one's voice to characters who do not talk in the real world. I found giving a voiceover offers much more ease while performing compared to a live action film."
After paying homage to the Muthuramalinga Thevar on the occasion his 101st birth anniversary, Jayalalithaa who was invited to inaugurate the free meals session by Sridhar Vandayar of the Moovendar Munnetra Kazhagam, said that she would return to the memorial as Chief Minister next year.
S. Mitra Kalita - Thursday, October 30, 2008 2:38 PM
I have made these calls before.
As I write this, 58 people are dead, hundreds injured. The death count will surely go higher. Here, in my metro and yours, we might express horror and feel some solidarity for the Assamese are simply entering the state of lawlessness that has marked so many parts of this country over the last year: Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Orissa. But in Assam, the peace was shattered long ago, the Assam Accord a frail veil to cover all that really remained broken. Thanks for the IIT-Guwahati, but when oh when will industry and mass employment arrive?
We own a home about 5km from one of the blast sites. Its caretaker is a Bangladeshi rickshaw puller. No sooner was there the breaking news bulletin this morning than an adamant L.K. Advani linking the attacks to a Bangladeshi network. "Let Rahim stay inside tonight," I instruct my uncle. "Same for didi."
We enter that state where home becomes fluid once again: he, the Indian citizen, more concerned with his American dream represented by stocks and elections; and me, obsessed with the place he left and the downtrodden relatives who will never venture far enough to see his house, let alone mine in New Delhi. Why does this matter? It represents much of what this fight has been all about, doesn't it: Whose country is this? Who has the right to enter India? To share in its prosperity? Just who is an Indian? Who is an Assamese?
We carried signs, my father and I, when Indira Gandhi came to visit Ronald Reagan, in the summer of 1982. "We'll give you blood but not our oil" and "Assam's resources should stay in Assam." The bus ride down from New York to Washington is one of my earliest memories. A few years later, I learned slogans from my cousins and shouted that Indira Gandhi was nothing but a good old crazy goat (pagoli sagoli--it rhymes and kinda makes sense in Assamese, really) when the CRPF marched down and around and around my grandparents' homes.
"What do they want?" my father will tell me tonight. "It is politics and greed and money. There is no ideology anymore."
Their answer is for everyone to leave. "Go get educated outside, in Bangalore, in Nagpur, in Kolkata," they say to my cousins. "Get jobs at TCS and Infosys and Reliance and Bharti."
31 Oct 2008, 0425 hrs IST, Dhananjay Mahapatra, TNN
killed scores but more than three years ago on July 12, 2005.
31 Oct 2008, 1513 hrs IST, PTI
The mail was sent to Rashtrapati Bhavan office about four days ago from an internet cafe at nearby Palarivattom, police sources said.
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For mile after mile, it is full of families bent forward with their lives on their backs: stoves, food, clothes, bedding and children.
Washington (PTI): Former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright has described Pakistan as an "international migraine" and argued that the South Asian country will be one of the hot spots that the next American president will have to contend with.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Indian Emergency (1975-1977))
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See also State of Emergency in India
The Indian Emergency of [25th June 1975–21st March 1977] was a 21-month period, when President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, upon advice by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution of India, effectively bestowing on her the power to rule by decree, suspending elections and civil liberties. It is one of the most controversial periods in the history of independent India.
1.1 Political unrest
1.2 The Allahabad conviction
2 Declaration of Emergency
3 The Emergency Administration
4 Elections of 1977
5 The Tribunal
6 The Debate over its Legacy
6.1 Support for Indira's Decisions
6.2 Charges against the Government
7 In Fiction
Opponents had long made allegations that Indira's party, Congress, had practiced electoral fraud to win the 1971 elections. The Gandhian socialist Jaya Prakash Narayan had been agitating in Bihar for a change in provincial government, and increasingly sought to direct popular action against the Central Government through satyagrahas.
 The Allahabad conviction
Raj Narain, who had been recently defeated in the parliamentary election by Indira Gandhi, lodged cases of election fraud and use of state machinery for election purposes on Mrs Gandhi in Allahabad High Court. On June 12, 1975, Justice Jagmohanlal Sinha of the Allahabad High Court found the Prime Minister guilty on the charge of misuse of government machinery for her election campaign. The court declared her election null and void and unseated her from her seat in Lok Sabha. The court also banned her from contesting any election for an additional six years. Ironically some serious charges such as bribing voters and election malpractices were dropped and she was held guilty on comparatively less important charges such as building of dais by state police and provision of electricity by the state electricity department and height of the dais from which she addressed the campaign rally. Some of these charges were in reality an essential part for the Prime Minister's Security protocol. Further one other point for which she was held responsible for misusing the government machinery was a government employee, Mr. Yashpal Kapoor, started campaigning for her before his resignation from government service was accepted. Because the court unseated her on comparatively frivolous charges, while she was acquitted on more serious charges, The Times described it as 'firing the Prime Minister for a traffic ticket'. However, strikes in labor and trade unions, student unions and government unions swept across the country. Protests led by Narayan and Morarji Desai flooded the streets of Delhi close to the Parliament building and the PM's residence.
 Declaration of Emergency
President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declared a State of Emergency upon the advice of the Prime Minister on 26 June 1975. In her own words, Indira brought democracy "to a grinding halt".
 The Emergency Administration
Elections for the Parliament and state governments were postponed. Invoking article 352 of the Indian Constitution, Indira granted herself extraordinary powers and launched a massive crackdown on civil liberties and political opposition. The Government cited threats to national security, as a recent war with Pakistan had just been concluded. It claimed that the strikes and protests had paralyzed the government and hurt the economy of the country greatly. Indira herself had the right to appeal to the Supreme Court of India and had no legal obligation to resign until then. In face of massive political opposition, desertion and disorder across the country and the party, Indira stuck to the advice of a few close party loyalists and her younger son Sanjay Gandhi, who had become a close political advisor.
 Elections of 1977
See Also: Janata Party, Jaya Prakash Narayan, Morarji Desai
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2007)
 The Tribunal
The efforts of the Janata administration to try government officials and Congress politicians for Emergency-era abuses and crimes were largely a flop due to a disorganized, over-complex and politically-motivated process of litigation. Although special tribunals were organized and scores of senior Congress Party and government officials arrested and charged, including Indira and Sanjay Gandhi, police were unable to submit sufficient evidence for most cases, and only a few low-level officials were convicted of any abuses.
 The Debate over its Legacy
Indira's emergency rule lasted 19 months, and its legacy remains intensely controversial.
 Support for Indira's Decisions
The Emergency was endorsed by Vinoba Bhave (who called it Anushasan parva or Time for discipline) and Mother Teresa. Pioneer industrialist J. R. D. Tata, and writer Khushwant Singh were among the other prominent supporters. Some have argued that India badly needed economic recovery after the 1971 Indo-Pak war had strained the exchequer. Indira's 20-point economic program increased agricultural production, manufacturing activity, exports and foreign reserves. The national economy achieved high levels of growth and investment, and as strikes were non-existent, productivity increased rapidly. Communal Hindu-Muslim riots, which had re-surfaced in the 1960s and 70s, virtually ceased, and initially the government seemed to be working with vigour. Police in cities had sweeping powers to destroy gang and syndicate structure
 Charges against the Government
Criticism and Accusations of the Emergency-era may be grouped as:
Abuse and torture of detainees and political prisoners
Use of public and private media institutions, like the national television network Doordarshan, for propaganda
Forced vasectomy and even castration of thousands of men under the infamous family planning initiative. Indira's son, Sanjay Gandhi, was blamed for this abusive and forcible treatment of people.
Arbitrary destruction of the slum and low-income housing in the Turkmen Gate and Jama Masjid area of old Delhi.
 In Fiction
The plot of the Indian film Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi revolves around the period during which the Indira Gandhi government declared a state of emergency . The film, directed by Sudhir Mishra, also tries to portray the growth of the Naxalite movement during the emergency era.
The Judgement by Kuldip Nayar
This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain.
India Country Study
"Memories of a Father," a book by Eachara Varier, father of a student killed in police custody during the emergency
Indira Gandhi: A Personal and Political Biography by Inder Malhotra
Economic policy and political insights into the Emergency
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Emergency_(India)"
V R Krishna Iyer
KOCHI, JUNE 26: Courts and judges played a significant role in the history of the Emergency. Two judges -- Justice V R Krishna Iyer and Justice Jag Mohan Lal Sinha -- were crucial to the imposition of the Emergency. Justice Sinha's (Allahabad High Court) verdict on June 12, 1975, declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha as void. Justice Iyer, then a vacation judge in the Supreme Court, decided on Indira's appeal. On June 24, Justice Krishna Iyer gave a conditional stay allowing her to remain a member of Parliament, but disallowing her to take part in the proceedings of the Lok Sabha. Indira Gandhi acted fast, the Emergency was declared on June 26. Justice Iyer, who is active in espousing public causes in his retired life in Kochi, looks back.
Mainstream, Vol XLV, No 45
by M. Saleem Kidwai, 31 October 2007
October 31 marks the twentythird anniversary of Indira Gandhi’s assassination. As a tribute to her abiding memory we are carrying the following piece. —Editor
The charismatic and epoch-making personality of Indira Gandhi left her imprint not only in the affairs of her own country but also in international affairs. She belonged to that noble galaxy of great leaders who wielded extraordinary power. Indira Gandhi was an Indian to the core but at the same time her vision went far beyond her own nation and embraced the entire human race. By virtue of being the Prime Minister of India, the largest democracy in the world, she was able to make a significant contribution to the practice of inter-national relations. She enjoyed well-deserved prestige and profound respect on the international scene. An attempt is being made here to highlight her role as an international leader.
INDIRA GANDHI not only influenced history but also made history. With her extraordinary skills she balanced the superpowers against one another. 1971 was Indira Gandhi’s finest hour in foreign and security affairs. Her skill lay in her intuitive grasp of the opportunity which the Pakistani rulers provided to change the geopolitics of East Pakistan. The Bangladesh situation gave her the opportunity to emerge as a military strategist and a diplomat par excellence on the regional and the world stage. With the clear and decisive victory India and Indira were established as a major power and force in the world. Indira Gandhi became the international leader. Her decisions and timings were applauded and hailed as perfect. As Henry Kissinger admits in his memoirs, Indira Gandhi outclassed and outmanoeuvred Nixon and Kissinger. It was a giant leap in international stature. The year 1971 represented the peak of her political career. She tackled Nixon on equal terms. Even her bitter critics were forced to admire her guts. For instance, Leader of the Opposition in Indian Parliament A. B. Vajpayee called her Durga. Another Opposition leader declared in Parliament: “Madam, you have created not only history but a new geography as well.” After the war Indira Gandhi acted with great magnanimity at the Shimla Conference. She put India on the international scientific map by exploding the country’s first underground nuclear device at Pokhran in 1974. This signalled India’s nuclear potential and its unwillingness to abide by the nuclear rules of the superpowers.
By Alejandro Guevara Onofre
-Universal Encyclopedia Illustrated European-American Annual Supplement 1960-1987, Espasa-Calpe, Barcelona
Indira Gandhi-The Empress of India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Role of India in Non-Aligned movement)
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India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that developed into the Non-Aligned Movement.
1 Origin of Non alignment movement
2 Early developments
3 In 1980s
6 See also
7 External links
 Origin of Non alignment movement
Nonalignment had its origins in India's colonial experience and the nonviolent Indian independence struggle led by the Congress, which left India determined to be the master of its fate in an international system dominated politically by Cold War alliances and economically by Western capitalism. The principles of nonalignment, as articulated by Nehru and his successors, were preservation of India's freedom of action internationally through refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance, particularly those led by the United States or the Soviet Union; nonviolence and international cooperation as a means of settling international disputes. Nonalignment was a consistent feature of Indian foreign policy by the late 1940s and enjoyed strong, almost unquestioning support among the Indian elite.
Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
Equality and mutual benefit
Jawaharlal Nehru's concept of nonalignment brought India considerable international prestige among newly independent states that shared India's concerns about the military confrontation between the superpowers and the influence of the former colonial powers. New Delhi used nonalignment to establish a significant role for itself as a leader of the Third World in such multilateral organizations as the United Nations (UN) and the Nonaligned Movement. The signing of the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation between India and the Soviet Union in 1971 and India's involvement in the internal affairs of its smaller neighbors in the 1970s and 1980s tarnished New Delhi's image as a nonaligned nation and led some observers to note that in practice, nonalignment applied only to India's relations with countries outside South Asia.
 Early developments
The movement had its origins in the 1947 Asian Relations Meeting in New Delhi and the 1955 Asian-African Conference in Bandung, Indonesia. India also participated in the 1961 Belgrade Conference that officially established the Nonaligned Movement, but Jawaharlal Nehru's declining prestige limited his influence. In the 1960s and 1970s, New Delhi concentrated on internal problems and bilateral relations, yet retained membership in an increasingly factionalized and radicalized movement. During the contentious 1979 Havana summit, India worked with moderate nations to reject Cuban president Fidel Castro's proposition that "socialism" (that is, the Soviet Union) was the "natural ally" of nonalignment.
 In 1980s
Under Indira Gandhi in the early 1980s, India attempted to reassert its prominent role in the Nonaligned Movement by focusing on the relationship between disarmament and economic development. By appealing to the economic grievances of developing countries, Indira Gandhi and her successors exercised a moderating influence on the Nonaligned Movement, diverting it from some of the Cold War issues that marred the controversial 1979 Havana meeting. Although hosting the 1983 summit boosted Indian prestige within the movement, its close relations with the Soviet Union and its pro-Soviet positions on Afghanistan and Cambodia limited its influence.
The early 1990s demise of the bipolar world system, which had existed since the end of World War II, shook the underpinnings of India's foreign policy. The Cold War system of alliances had been rendered meaningless by the collapse of the East European communist states, the dissolution of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (Warsaw Pact), and the demise of the Soviet Union. In the early 1990s, most colonies had become independent, and apartheid in South Africa was being dismantled, diminishing the value of anticolonialism and making it impossible for antiracism to serve as a rallying point for international political action (India and South Africa restored full diplomatic relations in 1993 after a thirty nine year lapse). The Panchsheel (Panch Shila), peaceful resolution of international disputes, and international cooperation to spur economic development which was being enhanced by domestic economic reforms were broad objectives in a changing world. Thus, the 1990s saw India redefining nonalignment and the view of India's place in the world.
"Library of Congress: Federal Research Division Country Profile: India, September 1995". Library of Congress Country Studies (All works are released in Public domain). Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
Foreign relations of India
Group of fifteen
India to play moderating role at 116-nation NAM
India reasserts firm commitment to NAM
India After Nonalignment
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Categories: Independent India | Foreign relations of India | Non-Aligned Movement
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TITLE: On the Eve of the Non-Aligned Conference
BY: Slobodan Stankovic
ORIGINAL SUBJECT: Foreign Relations
editors and policy staff of Radio Free Europe.
fourth non-aligned summit will take place in
Algiers, with 75 countries participating (65
full members and 10 observers). President Tito
will head the Yugoslav delegation while Fidel Castro
will head the Cuban delegation even though his country
is a member of Comecon. Indira Gandhi of India and
Salvador Allende of Chile will not be present. The
Arabs will be represented by Sadat and Gaddafy,
together with Boumedienne, the Algerian President who
will open the conference. The Soviet press has been
trying of late to present the non-aligned countries
as the allies of the "socialist community" in the
struggle against imperialism.
place in Algiers between September 2 and 8. From 2-4 September
the foreign ministers will meet to draft the agenda for the
non-aligned summit to take place between September 5 and 8.
According to a Yugoslav source, 65 non-aligned countries will
be represented with full rights while 15 countries will have
the status of observer. 
1-6 September 1961 with 28 countries participating (25 full
members and three observers); the second conference took place
in Cairo from 5-8 October 1964 with 57 countries participating
(47 full members and 10 observers); and the third conference was
organized in Lusaka (Zambia) with 64 countries participating
(54 full members and 10 observers.) As can be seen, the number
of participating states has increased with each conference. The
Fourth Conference will be held at the "Palais des Nations"
conference hall, about 20 km. west of the capital. The hall,
by 80 villas where heads of state and other high-ranking
delegates will be accommodated. President Sadat of Egypt, Fidel
Castro of Cuba and President Tito of Yugoslavia will be the most
prominent heads of non-aligned states, even though Cuba is a
member of the Comecon.
traced back as far as January of 195 3, when Milovan Djilas, at
that time still one of the most powerful Yugoslav party leaders,
attended the first Socialist Conference of Asian countries in
Rangoon, Burma. This was two months before the death of Stalin,
with whom Tito had had to fight after the June 1948 expulsion
from the communist family. Since most of the former Western
colonies in Asia and Africa had received their independence
after World War II, i.e., after 1948 and in the period of Tito's
fiercest struggle against Moscow, what was more natural for the
Yugoslav communists than to seek and find allies among the
newly-liberated countries, most of whom demonstrated socialist
tendencies in varying degrees, while showing opposition to
Soviet or Chinese-style communism.
countries of Asia and Africa were aimed at bolstering Yugoslavia's
position in Europe, particularly in view of the fact that the
conflict with Stalin had compelled Tito to come closer to the
West and to adopt a more liberal course within the country itself.
An alliance with the neutral countries in Asia and Africa was
both important as a support for the struggle against "Western
imperialism" and against Soviet hegemony. In December 1954
and January 1955, Tito visited India and Burma just at the time
it was decided that the first Conference of Asian and African
nations should take place in Bandung in April 1955.
statement on 2 3 December 19 54 explaining for the first time the
meaning of the policy of non-alignment. A section of the
Tito-Nehru statement read:
proclaim that the policy of non-alignment adopted
and pursued by their respective countries is not
"neutrality" or neutralism and therefore passivity,
but is a positive, active and constructive policy
seeking to lead to a collective peace on which
alone collective security can really rest...The
President and Prime Minister therefore repudiate
the erroneous conception which has become prevalent
in some quarters of a "third bloc" or "third force"
of non-aligned countries. This is a contradiction
in terms because such a bloc would involve them in
the very system of alignments which they regard as
name they should use for their "non-bloc bloc." Sensing a
certain aura of apathy or ambivalence in the word "neutral,"
they shifted to "neutralist," then to "uncommitted" and finally
to "non-bloc" or non-aligned" countries. As can be seen from
the Tito-Nehru statement they also coined the term "positive
neutrality" to disassociate themselves from what' they felt to be
the "negative", conservative and insufficiently anti-imperialist
variety exemplified by Sweden and some other countries.
very important, since Yugoslavia was the only European and only
communist country of the non-aligned group of states. Furthermore,
the newly liberated countries were full of internal weaknesses
resulting from the splitting of the forces advocating socialism
and the strength of the forces which opposed socialism. External
freedom for these countries has not been matched by the growth
of domestic liberties, still less of parliamentary institutions
after the western pattern. Only India, Cyprus and Lebanon at
that time could be described as functioning parliamentary
democracies, although they all could be described in varying degree
as "underdeveloped." Nearly all non-aligned countries receive
or have received aid from both the communist and non-communist
and African countries represented tried to define more
specifically the notion of neutralism. The communists, represented at
Bandung by China and North Vietnam, were then backing neutralism
as well as supporting anti-imperialism. Countries like Ceylon
and Iraq, which at that time uncompromisingly took the Western
side, saw their governments deposed and replaced by neutralist
ones. And even Prime Minister Nehru, who several months before
signed the declaration with Tito which claimed that the concept
of a bloc of the non-aligned was "a contradiction in terms,"
became an ardent advocate of neutralism in Bandung, neutralism
which was suggestive of a third bloc.
Khrushchev created a sensation by coming to Belgrade to apologize
to Tito for Stalin's mistakes. Tito's reputation was enormously
increased. Consequently the initiative for organizing and
coordinating the activities of the non-aligned countries passed
into his hands. He travelled through Asian and African countries
and won much sympathy for Yugoslavia and his kind of communism.
The Afro-Asian countries saw in the Yugoslav system a type of
communism which was hailed both by the American and West European
"imperialists," and even helped by them, while Tito, although
receiving aid from the "imperialist West," was recognized by
Moscow as an equal partner and a good communist.
Tito's successes in playing the ends against the middle. This
game was possible simply because it appeared that the non-aligned
countries had a chance to play an important role in a situation
of tense relations between two great blocs headed by the
Soviet Union and the United States. On the other hand, it is
precisely this tension which is unremittingly attacked by the
non-aligned. Their ideal has been to have no major conflict
between Washington and Moscow, but also no too-close cooperation
between them, as appeared after Brezhnev's meeting with Nixon
in Washington. In the meantime, while China was gaining economic
strength it was actually creating a third bloc.
of Bandung with trepidation, their attitude toward a non-aligned
conference was more receptive. First, it did not become apparent
until six years after Bandung that communist parties would
expand under the shadow of the non-aligned governments; and
second, the three initiators of a large-scale non-aligned
conference which was to take place in Belgrade in September
1961 were three ambitious statesmen who had prospered on
international defiance: Nasser defied Britain, France and Israel over
Suez and survived; Sukarno created his empire by playing America
and Britain against the Netherlands; while Tito defied Stalin
and got away with it. These three dictators, claiming to be
"building socialism" following their own models, were rather
reluctantly. joined by the fourth non-aligned statesman, the
great mediator Nehru of India.
disturbed by Moscow's resuming nuclear testing on September 1,
the day the conference began. The "Big Five"-- Tito, Nehru,
Sukarno, Nasser and Nkhrumah--were the leaders of the conference.
Tito provoked the Western powers because of his sudden
pro-Soviet attitude. He approved Moscow's nuclear testing even
though Nehru attacked it. The conference opened in an atmosphere
of shock, confusion and mounting indignation over the Soviet
nuclear tests. In the final analysis, the Belgrade conference did
not find ways to impose their neutralism more effectively on
the course of the cold war. Tito's turn-about at the conference
weakened his position among some of the participants, who could
not understand the Yugoslav claim that while non-alignment
was possible in foreign policy, there could be no non-alignment
in ideological matters.
1964 hosted the second non-aligned conference in Cairo (5-10
October 1964). Several days after this conference ended Nikita
Khrushchev was deposed in Moscow. Since Nehru died in May 1964
India was represented by Shastri, while Ben Bella represented
Algeria. In his speech Tito retained some of his pro-Moscow
ideological leanings. Sukarno at that time was moving closer
imperialist powers. He simply dismissed "peaceful coexistence" as
fruitless. It was reported at that time that Tito was disgusted
with Sukarno's pro-Peking line in Cairo and, in private talks,
called the Indonesian leader "an Oriental Goldwater." 
it was much easier to be non-aligned between two blocs than
between three. In addition, changes within each individual
bloc led to conflicts between the internal forces of moderation
and those of militancy. In Yugoslavia itself the struggle between
"liberals" and "dogmatists" grew fierce and was followed by
loud voices demanding that Yugoslavia should stop playing a
megalomaniac role in the world, a role which assertedly was not
in accordance with the country's economic strength. In a rather
short time only Tito and Nasser survived out of the "Big Six".
Nehru died in 1964; Ben Bella was ousted in June 1965; Nkhrumah
was deposed in February 1966; while Sukarno's removal was
completed in March 196 7. Nasser barely survived the Middle East
crisis of June 1967 and died in September 1970, soon after the
third non-aligned conference in Lusaka ended.
reason to oppose non-aligned countries and their meetings,
Moscow and its East European allies took a negative attitude.
After Brezhnev assumed power in Moscow the Soviet line was that
the policy of non-alignment was a "farce." Similar views were
maintained by other East European countries, especially by
Poland. The Soviet and East European opposition to non-aligned
countries was particularly strong after the August 196 8
invasion of Czechoslovakia. A Soviet newspaper wrote in October
"policy of non-alignment." But if one follows the
position of the leadership of the League of
Communists of Yugoslavia, it becomes obvious that this
is a position of alignment not with socialism,
but rather with anti-socialist forces in
Czechoslovakia and the whole imperialist chorus. 
authors for having dubbed the policy of non-alignment "the
so-called policy." Yugoslavia's attitude toward the Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia was taken as evidence that Yugoslavia
was not a non-aligned country. The Polish views included the
claim that the non-aligned countries "can play the game of
nonalignment thanks only to the existence of the Warsaw Pact armed
(Zambia) was even less successful than the first two conferences
in Belgrade and Cairo. The main topics were Vietnam and the
Middle East. Tito made a speech in which he said that the
nonaligned countries "have to make joint efforts to oppose all,
manifestations of force and all forms of domination." He claimed
claimed that a "huge section of mankind, regardless of whether
someone likes it or not, has accepted the policy of non-alignment
as the only possible way to help the world to march along new
democratic roads." 
came to the conclusion that the Soviet leader had changed his
hostile attitude toward non-alignment. In an interview with a
Zagreb daily in February of this year Tito was asked about the
Soviet leaders' attitude toward non-alignment. Tito answered
that Moscow had "a positive attittude" toward non-alignment
and then continued:
with Brezhnev. He told me1 that they completely agreed
with the principles of non-alignment, that such a
policy had been useful in the struggle against
imperialism, against various attempts of aggression,
beginning" the Soviet leaders had a hostile attitude toward
non-alignment. Tito answered that they "needed a little time"
and then added:
non-alignment. The Soviet leaders consider this
policy useful, and realize that it is praiseworthy
that Yugoslavia has been among the non-aligned
countries, because they know that Yugoslavia has been
conducting an unselfish policy.
non-aligned leaders, particularly the Yugoslavs. They have been
against the supremacy of the two "super powers," a notion similar
to that of the Chinese. This is why one should expect the
fourth non-aligned summit in Algeria to constitute a new challenge
to American-Soviet detente. In the meantime the Russians and
Chinese began polemics over the meaning of non-alignment.
Pravda said that China was trying to influence the upcoming
non-aligned conference in Algeria to oppose the "socialist
the forthcoming Algiers conference. The Chinese
leadership is exerting efforts to tone down the
anti-imperialist essence of this movement and to
oppose the non-aligned countries to the socialist
genuine national liberation and make a real contribution to
detente if they will come "shoulder to shoulder with world
Kulik denied that the Brezhnev-Nixon meeting is dangerous for
the non-aligned countries. Contrary to the historical f acts,
allies of this neutralist movement from its very
inception.... It has been its militant, anti-imperialist
line that has always been the main target of
international reactionary attacks on the non-aligned
movement, and the reason why the reactionary forces
tried to disrupt the unity of the socialist and neutral
countries...Attempts are being made to equate imperialist
and socialist countries, thereby casting a shadow on
the Soviet Union's foreign policy, and then to confront
the socialist and the non-aligned countries with each
turning the fourth non-aligned conference in Algeria into its
own instrument. President Tito is aware of the fact that he is
the only one of the "Big Six" to survive. But one should not
forget that Fidel Castro will be there and also Sadat with Gaddafy.
The currents within the non-aligned "bloc" may make it very
difficult for its members to agree on a firm stand. Large groups
within the non-aligned movement wish to avoid annoying one or
the other of the three super-powers (the Soviet Union, America
and China)9 which cannot but lead to various compromises, Indira
Gandhi and Senor Allende will not be present, while President
Boumedienne will play the role of the host. In view of the
forthcoming second phase of the European Security Conference in Geneva,
both the East and West will direct their eyes to Algeria between
September 2 and 8 to see whether the "non-aligned countries" will
succeed in remaining truly non-aligned.
quoted the Polish Mala Encyklopedia Powszechna (Small General
(6)Vjesnik, Zagreb, 17 August 1973.
Strategic Insights, Volume V, Issue 4 (April 2006)
by Annpurna Nautiyal
India's relationship with the United States has always been the subject of debate and discussion. Despite being the world’s largest democracy, India could never enjoy a smooth and non-controversial relationship with the world's oldest democracy—which means that sharing the same value system will not act as a glue to hold states together in the international politics. Until recently, India and the United States, due to their multifarious differences, were considered to be ‘estranged democracies’—but their recent agreement on civil nuclear technology has transformed their relationship, and made them ‘engaged democracies.’
An historic look at present U.S. policies toward India and Pakistan clearly indicates a shift in U.S. policy towards India, and this is not totally unprecedented. For a long time the United States has been following a policy of either favoring India or Pakistan, or tilting both ways—depending on each president’s attitude, personal equation, and also geopolitical necessities, which has always helped Pakistan on account of its location between the Persian Gulf and East Asia, enabling it to be considered as a way to defend West Asia since the cold war days. There had been periods when the United States also felt the need to develop close relations with India, but on almost all other occasions U.S. policy has shown a preference towards Pakistan due to its geography as well as its willingness to cooperate with the United States in all its ventures. The United States has been following this policy for the last five decades, and in accordance with its national interests and geopolitical considerations, it has promoted and extended its support to Pakistan. India received its much-desired support from the erstwhile Soviet Union to ward off her worries about economic, military, and diplomatic support. The superpower politics of taking sides in the subcontinent’s affairs increased tensions and the hostility between India and Pakistan. With the end of the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet Union, new warmth was seen in the Indo-U.S. relationship, as was a new coolness in U.S.-Pakistan relations.
President Bush, during his first term, continued the policies of displeasure and distance initiated by the Clinton Administration towards Pakistan by demoting it from the category of an ally to that of a rogue state because of its military dictatorship, support of the Taliban in Afghanistan, involvement in cross-border terrorism, acquiring nuclear and ballistic missiles from China and North Korea, and its suspected role in supplying these to other countries. But 9/11 and the U.S. war against terrorism and Al Qaeda forced the United States to reexamine its policies toward Pakistan because of Pakistan's geographical proximity to Afghanistan, and the extensive links which it had developed with the Taliban in Afghanistan. Pakistan, keeping in view the U.S. annoyance with its activities, to avoid any adverse action decided to extend its support to the U.S. war on terrorism in response to the U.S. declaration “either you are with us or against us in the war against terrorism.” India, which had already indicated its desire to go with the United States by supporting the U.S. resolution of going for a missile defense system plan even before its closest strategic allies backed it, by not opposing the U.S. abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty despite worldwide opposition, endorsing the U.S. position on climate change, and offering unconditional support and military bases for the U.S. war in Afghanistan after 9/11, was not found suitable—and Pakistan, on account of its geographical closeness with Afghanistan, became a valuable ally in this war.
An analysis of U.S. policy makes it very clear that the United States’ policy towards South Asia and particularly India and Pakistan has never been consistent because of its ever changing interests. Therefore, whenever Pakistan was required for the furtherance of its national interests, U.S. policy was found tilting in Pakistan's favor, on some occasions it adopted the neutral stance, and a few times a policy of tilting both ways. Presently the United States wants to court both India and Pakistan simultaneously due to different reasons; therefore, it’s following the policy of tilting both ways. Due to this, for the first time the United States’ policies are not making the other party nervous because if F-16s are being provided to Pakistan, and the United States has also offered to sell F-18s to India and is seeking close relations with India also.
KOCHI, JUNE 26: Courts and judges played a significant role in the history of the Emergency. Two judges -- Justice V R Krishna Iyer and Justice Jag Mohan Lal Sinha -- were crucial to the imposition of the Emergency. Justice Sinha's (Allahabad High Court) verdict on June 12, 1975, declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha as void. Justice Iyer, then a vacation judge in the Supreme Court, decided on Indira's appeal.
In view of India's growing place within the United States’ calculations and changing perceptions, the recent civil nuclear agreement with India is being seen as a step in right direction. The nuclear agreement is important due to the fact that the goal of the U.S. foreign policy—developing global partnerships to meet the challenges of globalization, radical Islam, and terrorism—cannot be achieved without the support and cooperation of some strong countries. Therefore, it wants other countries to also become strong. India is viewed as one such country with which the United States could develop a global partnership. To successfully carry forth this objective, Richard Hass has suggested a doctrine of integration for U.S. foreign policy with three dimensional goals: to create a cooperative relationship among the world's major powers, built on a common commitment to promote certain principles and outcomes; and developing effective arrangements and actions and to bring in other countries, organizations, and peoples to enjoy the benefits of physical security, economic opportunity, and political freedom. In Haas' opinion the integrated world, of many governments and organizations and societies, would be helpful in meeting the challenges of the modern era. In view of this theory, it could be said that the United States is keen to see India's integration and consolidation with the global order, so that it could extend its help in countering the challenges of terrorism, proliferation of nuclear weapons, and promotion of democracy. As no two countries other than India and the United States are threatened by terrorism, religious extremism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and the rise of China; therefore the integration of India as a friendly nuclear weapons state into the evolving global non-proliferation regime is being considered as a most appropriate move by the United States’ foreign policy in the new era.
Closer relations with India would also permit the United States to ask India to share some of its burdens in Asia, and to work for maintaining a balance of power in this region. As Henry Kissinger, while appreciating and supporting the nuclear deal with India, has also pointed out, in a period of terrorism and a potential clash of civilizations, both India and the United States have parallel objectives in defeating radical Islam. He feels that the spread of the restlessness of radical Islam is dangerous for India as well, which is home to over 150 million Muslims, and that the United States is fighting some of India's battles. He has also accepted that the United States’ relationship with Pakistan is a special case, but that the United States needs to balance the role of Pakistan in the war against terrorism in view of the emerging partnership with India. However, the current moves of the United States policy towards India and Pakistan clearly show that United States is neither pro-Pakistan nor pro-India, but it has always been pro-America and it only works for the furtherance of its national interests.
Hence, the question of fighting India's battle does not arise at all, as India has been fighting the war against cross border terrorism for a long time, but the United States, following the policy of ‘my terrorist’ and ‘your terrorist,’ never felt the necessity of doing something about India's war against terrorism that’s being aided and abetted by Pakistan. 9/11 was a humbling experience, and allowed the United States to understand that terrorism does not belong to a country or region, but that it is the enemy of the mankind, and therefore needs to be dealt with through a global partnership and approach. Yet, despite this realization, whatever is being done by the United States in the name of the war against terrorism is totally in accordance to its national interests, and to advance its own global agenda, it wants to develop a global partnership by involving other countries.
In South Asia presently, U.S. interests demand friendly relations with both India and Pakistan, therefore the United States aspires to court both India and Pakistan so that both can be used according to its interests. Under such compulsions, while trying to advance its agenda the United States would naturally like to ignore the interests of the other countries. This could be understood from the United States’ pressures on India and Pakistan to withdraw from the Iran-India-Pakistan Gas pipeline project just because of its apprehension that it would encourage Iran to pursue its nefarious designs, despite knowing that this deal is essential for India to maintain its economic growth and to satisfy its energy needs and for Pakistan to make money to ease some of its economic problems as well as to try peace with India. In view of this, it would be worthwhile to mention that the current goodwill towards India is not out of any sudden love for India, but the result of the perception of the "neocons" of the Bush administration that see alliance with India as a key to maintaining balance in this region, and also for checking the undesirable moves of Iran and China in the long run.
Although the United States has denied that a closer relationship with India is directed toward any country or region, and India also does not favor participation in any such triangular or bilateral alliances, a large number of scholars believes that the United States is moving towards India because it has China in mind, and that India also has the similar interests. The intolerance of any emerging power bloc capable of challenging the United States’ interests and power in any region of the world has also encouraged the United States to develop good relations with India. The United States has still not abandoned its policy of searching for such allies which could be helpful in promoting its interests. In view of India's economic growth and military capability, the United States has started to see India as a global partner in dealing with future threats emanating primarily from China, terrorism, and the Axis-of-Evil countries.
Convergence of Interests and Changing Perceptions
Presently the similarity of threat-perception—of terrorism, religious fundamentalism, weapons of mass destruction, and the desire to develop close cooperation with India to confront challenges to peace and security—has allowed India and the United States, the two democracies, to keep their differences aside and walk together toward a better relationship. The Bush administration’s policies of favoring democracies—acknowledging India as a rising power, a responsible state with advanced nuclear technology—has provided a new outlook for the India-U.S. relationship in this new era.
Sharing common interests such as tackling terrorism, promoting peace and security, and supporting democracy and its value system, gives the two nations common ground to become close allies in the post-9/11 era. This marks a stark change in the United States’ perception of India's capabilities; therefore, the United States wants to make India not a regional ally, but a global partner, so that India may also be involved in advancing the United States’ global agenda. It is interesting to note that India has always been a democracy, but India's democracy never became a bond for a strong relationship between the United States and India; rather, the United States preferred military dictatorships, but presently due to the change in its priorities, the United States has found in India a natural ally. It also shows that for the United States, there are no permanent allies and enemies, as only national interests matter. Therefore, India is being preferred and courted just as China was in the 1970s due to the geopolitical and balance-of-power needs of the United States. India's democratic traditions, political institutions, economic resurgence, and its huge business and market potential, have all impressed the United States and its perception of India has now largely become favorable.
In view of this, it is not difficult to understand that the present phase of close relations with India is not driven by goodwill, but purely business and politico-security interests that have facilitated the process of coming closer. For India, too, its relationship with the United States is important due to its changing economic, scientific, military, diplomatic, and to some extent political, needs. The United States also wishes to gain access to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf, which is possible only with the collaboration and cooperation of India. America, therefore, feels that it is in its interests to convert India into a powerful regional force, which has also been a long cherished dream of India, and suits her very much. With this convergence of interests, both the United States and India have tended to become supportive of each other. Moreover, the attitude of the Indian people towards America is also becoming favorable and friendlier. Indeed, the statesmen and politicians have stopped referring to the famous ‘foreign hand’ as the source of India’s woes in the domestic and external arena.
In fact, after a long period of anti-Americanism in India, a gradual change in public opinion towards America is also being witnessed. This fact was highlighted in a recent opinion poll by Outlook magazine in its March 6, 2006 issue. Among the lower-middle class and higher economic strata in nine cities of India, the survey found that:
66 percent of respondents believe that President George W. Bush was a friend of India.
50 percent believe that America is closer to Pakistan than to India.
49 percent believe that the United States has not extended enough help to India in fighting terrorism.
55 percent believe that India can trust the United States for support in times of need.
72 percent believe that the United States is a global bully.
59 percent believe India has compromised on its foreign policy by getting too close to America.
However, 46 percent opined that they love the United States.
74 percent believe India should develop close ties with the United States on trade and business issues.
51 percent approve of India's two pro- United States votes against Iran at the International Atomic Energy Agency because they believed that it was necessary for improving relations with the United States.
But 64 percent want India to ignore America's objection and pursue the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline for fulfilling India's energy needs.
A survey by the United States-based Pew Research Centre in June 2005 also confirmed that India's middle-class strongly favors the United States as 71 percent in this all-urban India sample had a favorable opinion of America. It was the highest proportion among the 16 countries surveyed, as only 41 to 45 percent of respondents in most Western European countries held such a favorable opinion. In China, only 42 percent view America favorably, and in Pakistan this drops to 23 percent. This reflects a massive change in the perception of the Indian public towards the United States. The credit for taking positive initiatives, and providing the momentum to start the process of close relations with the United States, goes to the BJP-led coalition government (NDA) by Atal Bihari Bajpayee, who despite the various differences believes that being natural allies, a close relationship between India and the United States is imperative. He also saw close ties with the United States as a means to end India’s long economic, military, diplomatic, and scientific isolation.
There is no denying that this agreement has opened new vistas of cooperation between India and the United States, but it cannot be denied that despite the hoopla, the pin-pricks and pressure politics are still present. The U.S. objections regarding the supply of nuclear fuel by Russia to India's Tarapur nuclear reactor is a cause of concern. The United States feels that any action should be taken only after India fulfills its obligations under the historic Indo-U.S. nuclear deal, which India has not done. India, on the other hand, has made it clear that nuclear fuel was required urgently to prevent shutting down the Tarapur plant, and that it did not violate any NSG guidelines or international law. India has also clarified that it had requested the United States to supply nuclear fuel, but as this is not possible under U.S. law, it requested this of Russia, which agreed—and that this issue was separate from the Indo-U.S. civilian nuclear deal. In view of this, it seems that in order to pursue its civil nuclear-related interests, India would have to accommodate the United States’ pressures, and without the United States’ consent, it would be difficult for India to get such supplies from other nuclear powers.
India and the United States also had extensive dialogues on the nuclear issue during the period of the NDA government in India because the United States aspired to stop, cap, and roll back India's nuclear program. But when this did not happen, relations became strained. But President Bush, in accordance with his policy of developing close relations with India, preferred to avoid pressurizing India for this, and to instead adopt other methods to bring India under the nuclear regimes. The nuclear agreement initiated during Indian Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh’s visit to the United States in July 2005, and finalized during President Bush’s visit to India in March 2006, is exceptional as it is with a country which has not signed the NPT, and U.S. law prohibits entering into agreements with countries that have not signed the NPT, and that refuse to follow the guidelines of the IAEA.
U.S. objections to India's search for alternative energies are also noteworthy, as the United States wants to restrict India's attempts to develop the India-Pakistan-Iran gas pipeline. The United States believes that the nuclear deal will end India's dependence on the oil from Persian Gulf; however, despite being the pioneer in a field of nuclear energy, the United States is equally interested in maintaining a continued and unhindered flow of oil from the Persian Gulf for satisfying its own needs, which means the United States is free to look after its interests, but that India's hands would be tied. In view of this, it can be said that though the integration of India in the field of nuclear energy is a welcome move, that India needs to tread cautiously to protect its interests.
There are other issues of concern, such as the United States’ relationship with Pakistan, its policy of not supporting India’s candidacy for permanent membership on the UN Security Council, its policies toward Iraq and Iran, as well as pressures on India for supporting the United States’ moves against Iran, and the like, which have the potential to cause the two countries to drift in different directions. Indeed, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice’s request for $6.2 billion, in her testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on State Department's foreign operations budget, to strengthen America’s GWOT coalition partners such as Pakistan, Indonesia, Kenya, and Jordan, standing shoulder-to-shoulder with the United States in the fight against terrorism, is worrisome for India—especially as the highest amount proposed in this grant, $739 million, has been allocated for Pakistan, far greater than the $560 million requested for Colombia, the $154 million for Indonesia, the $457 million for Jordan, and the $335 million for Kenya. Keeping in view the past experience of such U.S. aid, and Pakistan's tendency of supporting cross-border terrorism, India's apprehensions are natural, and that despite the positive moves, the United States’ policy of patronizing Pakistan is intact, giving Pakistan the latitude to continue its policy of creating problems for India—and this has the potential to damage the relationship between India and the United States.
Although there are issues of concern that could, at any time, once again reverse the tide of the warming U.S.-India relationship, and make the whole exercise of the nuclear agreement, and forging closer relations, useless; hopes for a good relationship always underlie initiatives. The spirit of the move is undoubtedly noble, but its implementation is full of hurdles, and largely depends upon the United States. In view of the apprehensions being expressed by members of the Congress, and the rigid attitude of some members toward India, it is widely felt that securing the approval of the nuclear agreement will be difficult for the Bush administration.
In consideration of this prevailing atmosphere, and its complexities, the Bush administration has made it clear that if this treaty fails to get approval by Congress, it will be impossible to renegotiate it. In fact, the argument that this agreement is liable for killing the spirit of the NPT, is not valid—as North Korea, Pakistan, and China had been in the proliferation racket long before this deal was signed, and with full knowledge of the Nuclear 5. It was not India that encouraged the nuclear renegades, like Iran, to pursue their nuclear weapons programs despite signing the NPT. On the contrary, India has always supported the non-proliferation agenda, observed self-imposed restraints, and never indulged in its trade. India's vote with the United States against Iran’s non-compliance of the NPT, despite domestic opposition, can be taken as an example of this. If this deal legalizes, and helps to sustain, democratic India's nuclear program, this would not only be good for India's development and economic growth, but would also be in the interest of world peace and security.
Actually, with a biased set of policymakers and advisers mostly being governed by the closed mind set of the cold war in both India and the United States, no one believed that such a nuclear deal would happen one day, and that the two democracies could agree to work together. Such groups are shocked by this unprecedented, unimagined development, and the positive movement in the India-U.S. relationship, and therefore express their concerns in a manner markedly different from the present bonhomie. After so many years of an antagonistic relationship, the United States and India have found common ground to work with one another for the promotion of peace and security. As a consequence, these considerations should not be allowed to mar it.
However, in view of the dissimilarities between India and the United States with regard to their global power projections for protecting and enhancing their national interests, India needs to move forward cautiously. But nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that this is a major achievement for the India-U.S. relationship in the post-9/11 era, and certainly speaks for hope, and for a better future of cooperation between India and the United States.
About the Author
Dr. Annpurna Nautiyal is a Professor and head of the Department of Political Science at HNB Garhwal University in Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttaranchal, India. She is currently Fulbright Visiting Professor, at the Department of Public and International Affairs, George Mason University.
Her area of interest is international relations, but she also has a keen interest in the regional and national issues, and in particular the problem of women's empowerment in the hill areas of Uttaranchal. She has published several articles in reputed journals, and recently she has edited a book on Challenges to India’s Foreign Policy in the New Era (Gyan Publications, New Delhi 2006).
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1. Zakaria Fareed, "Nixon to China, Bush to India; Thirty years of lectures on nonproliferation and sanctions have done nothing to stop, slow down or make India's nuclear program safer," Newsweek, February 27, 2006, 45.
2. Jim Vandehei and John Lancaster, “Bush offers Praise to Pakistani Leader,” The Washington Post, March 5, 2006, A1; also see Editorial Board, “A Message for Gen. Musharraf,” The Washington Post, March 2, 2006, A20.
3. Jeffrey E. Key, "Beyond Tilting Both Ways: A New Post Cold War South Asia Policy," Asian Affairs 25, No.2, Summer 1998, 116.
4. Ashley J. Tellis, "The U.S. India Global Partnership How Significant for American Interests: Testimony before the House Committee of International Relations," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, November 16, 2006.
5. "P.M. Offers peace and Security Pact to Pak," Hindustan Times, March 24, 2006.
6. Richard N Haass, "The Case for Integration," The National Interest, March 11, 2006.
7. Henry A. Kissinger, "Working with India," The Washington Post, March 20, 2006, A15.
8. Bidwai Praful, "A Global Bully as a Friend," Rediff.com, March 6, 2006.
9. Condoleezza Rice, "Our Opportunity with India," The Washington Post, March 13, 2006, A15.
10. "Russian Fuel for Tarapur within NSG Guidelines: India," Hindustan Times, March 15, 2006.
11. "Nuclear Proliferation: Dr Strangedeal," The Economist, March 11, 2006.
12. Glenn Kessler, "Nunn Urges Congress to Set Conditions on U.S.-India Nuclear Pact," The Washington Post, March 19, 2006, A9.
13. "N-Deal Will Set Table for N-Weapons Banquet," Rediff.com, March 27, 2006.
14. "N-Deal Suffers Setback at Suppliers Meet," Rediff.com, March 24, 2006.
15. "U.S. Vows to Develop Strong Ties with India, Democratic Nations," Rediff.com, February 16, 2006.
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